CECS 5420
Web Authoring
Spring 2003
Dr. Jones

Postings for Assignment 1B

Locate and read, from any professional journal, two articles relevant to the course. Write a two paragraph review for each article. The 1st paragraph should describe the contents of the article. The 2nd paragraph should be your reaction to the article. Do not forget to include the reference cite. Use APA format.

Akhlaq Hossain
  • Effective Course Content by Design.
  • New Horizons in Distance Education

    Carolyn Smythe
  • Family Issues
  • Access

    ShanShan Cheng
  • Toward an internet-driven, theoretically-based, innovative approach to sex education
  • Curriculum Page Development: Utilize and Organize Resources Found on the World Wide Web.

  • Chieh-kang Chin
  • Click and Clink: Shopping for baubles? Jewelry is one of the Webs shining success stories
  • Whos Afraid Of E-Books? Textbook makers feared the dot-coms.

  • Cheryl Lawler
  • Using Emerging Technologies to Help Bridge the Gap Between University Theory and Classroom Practice: Challenges and Successes, School Science Mathematics
  • Understandings of Solutions to Differential Equations Through Contexts, Web-Based Simulations, and Student Discussion

  • Connie Melton
  • Bring Community: into the Online Learning Environment: What, Why and How
  • End-user Training Management Systems

  • Debbie Huffman
  • Perspectives on Lifelong Learning: The View From a Distance
  • Hypertext Links: Whither Thou Goest, and Why

  • Dennis Westman
  • Master Clusters: Savvy Web Searches?
  • Not Just Another Pretty Course Web Site.

    Doug Lewis
  • How does it differ from Traditional or Computer Literacy?
  • Technology and Education: Between Chaos and Order

  • Eric Elterman
  • Blueprint to develop a Great Web Site
  • Basics of K-12 Web Site Design

    Greg Fisher
  • Clean Up Your Web Pages With HTML Tidy
  • Boogie Jacks Lifes Little Goodies: Finding Creativity
  • JungFang Hsieh
  • Web Authoring in XML
  • DESIGN A Great Site

    Jason Huber
  • Systematic planning in the design of an educational web site:
  • We are what we weave? Issues and Guidelines for learning by web design

  • Jimmy Wibowo
  • Is the Web Ready for TESL (and vice versa)?
  • U.S. government standards will affect Web developers -- but how?

  • Lauren McDermott
  • Language Testing Tools and Technologies
  • Designing and Managing Information in the Fast Lane

  • Pruekpairojkul Eddie
  • Getting a Kick Out of Learning with Technology
  • Homeschooling made easy

  • Shih-Yi Yuan
  • Electronic Commerce: The issues and challenges to creating trust and a positive image in consumer sales on the World Wide We
  • Digital Multimedia & Distance Education: Can They Effectively Be Combined?

  • Tina Lo
  • Despite Concerns, Online Elementary Schools Grow
  • Web-Based Learning: Much to Gain, And Many Barriers

  • yang tzu yi
  • anytime, anywhere

  • A classroom of One
  • Pros and Cons of Studying online

    Yu-Shu Chien
  • Helpmate: A Multimedia Web Teaching Framework
  • A Short Analysis of Verbal and Visual Elements in the English of World Web Web Pages

  • Yezhisai Rajendran
  • Stop! Is your HTML document valid?
  • Hypertext, the Next Generation: A Review and Research agenda.

  • Effective Course Content by Design.

    Review (Akhlaq Hossain)

    The Instructional Technology Resource Center at Idaho State University assists faculty with the transition from a traditional course to a Web-enhanced course. The web-course developers must pay close attention to the aspects of course development that are critical to the success of student learners. There is greater chance of success when instructional design is integrated with the courses delivery tool. At ISU such integration is facilitated through the use of WebCT.

    Creating successful course content within a Course Management System (CMS) requires that the course learning outcomes drive the design and performance of the technology. Online delivery, therefore, requires more than simply converting course material to a Web-ready format.

    Ten steps of the Instructional Design Model (IDM):

    1. Assess need to identify goals.
    2. Conduct instructional analysis.
    3. Analyze learners and contexts.
    4. Write performance objectives.
    5. Develop assessment instruments.
    6. Develop instructional strategy.
    7. Develop and select instructional materials.
    8. Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction.
    9. Revise instruction.
    10. Design and conduct summative evaluation.

    The IDM provides a map for instructional designers to follow in order to create, organize, and deliver content effectively. Most instructional designers recognize the ongoing scrutiny and improvement of instruction as one of the most important steps to the instructional design processă. By employing an instructional design model, online courses can make a clear connection between learning outcomes and course design.


    This article discusses how course management systems; like WebCT (which we use here at UNT) can be effective delivery tools for online-courses. Many people have posted articles about online teaching/course etc. But it is critical to realize that the delivery system and its design is equally important, for the success of the student learners.


    Stamm, R. and Howlett B., (January/February 2002).
    Effective Course Content by Design.
    Faculty and Staff Development.
    Retrieved on 02/09/2003 from

    New Horizons in Distance Education

    Review (Akhlaq Hossain)

    The teaching environment is undergoing a major shift as more and more programs are offering classes either partially or totally online. This shift is due to rising costs in education, enrollment management issues, and an evolution in the use of distance learning.ă The article discusses how distance education is progressing into online classes.
    According to Petersons Distance Learning Guide, the number of cybercolleges grew from 93 in 1993 to 762 in 1997ă. Several accredited universities have been leaders in offering online courses.

    Emphasis on this type of course delivery has come about for several reasons.

    1.costs of education have soared, and universities are seeking
    more economical methods of course delivery

    2.it is expected that by 2000, 95% of workers will be using technology
    in some manner in their jobs

    3.many of todays learners are defined as being older than 25, with
    jobs and/or family responsibilities, they usually do not have the
    freedom to enroll in the traditional college class

    4.education delivery systems must address a variety of needs.

    The article then provides a list of Guidelinesă on developing an online marketing class.(please read article for details).


    Distance education extends the opportunity for more diverse, large numbers of people to participate in higher education. As universities are faced with increasing costs, increasing enrollments and budget cuts, distance education in general can be a lifesaver in extending the reach of the university. Thus a shift to online courses would be a win-win situation for both the University and the Students.


    Eastman, J.K. and Swift, C.O., (April, 2001).
    New horizons in distance education: The online learner-centered marketing class.
    Journal of Marketing Education; Boulder; Apr 2001; vol-23, issue-1.
    Retrieved on 02/09/2003 from

    Family Issues

    Review (Carolyn Smythe)
    A review of literature in the area of education studies citing the involvement of the family as a necessary component in the educational process of the child is well documented. The family is considered to be an integral component in terms of the systemic approach in the education of children in both the academic and behavioral arena. The family unit is also integral to the effective implementation of computer strategies and technology as well (Lesar, 1998).

    A review of IDEA, 1990 (PL 101-476) and recommendations to Part H of IDEA 1991 indicate that assistive technology must be provided as a support in the educational training of students with disabilities (Lesar, 1998). It further indicates that the service delivery systems in the educational arena are responsible for providing both training and technology in the area of computer to the families of students that are in need of technical assistance in addition to providing the necessary supports for the student (Lesar, 1998).

    This process can be difficult for families who are of low socioeconomic status and oftentimes may lack the financial means to purchase equipment, the intellectual ability, and or training necessary to implement effective technology interventions in the home. For families that are capable of providing the hardware and are trained in computers finding the appropriate software to meet the needs of their child can present challenges as well. In spite of the resources available to parents and schools it is clear that the concept of technology presents issues for both the school and family in terms of access, effective training, and the ability to implement effective programming for a diverse population.

    Brown, M.R. (2000). Access, instruction, and barriers. Remedial and Special Education, 21(3), 182-193.

    Review (Carolyn Smythe)
    If technology is to be taught effectively in the classroom environment and if this is to be not only a means to an end but an end in itself then access to technology, both hardware and software,for all students becomes a critical educational issue that should be addressed on a national level.

    Monica Brown states that as the level of technology increases, a potential increase in the societal divide of students in education can also occur which results either in the improvement of all life chances for students or will further continue the widening gap between the students who have access to technology and those who do not (Brown, 2000). It is this concern that is being addressed in many school districts across the country as the search for additional funding for education initiatives, increased teacher pay and benefits, special education programs, and a number of other school related needs compete for the same dollars that technological advancement requires. Equal access to learning must become a priority in education so that technology can serve its purpose of allowing all students to have the opportunity to drive on the information superhighway as opposed to being a spectator watching as it passes by.

    And, technological resourcing should be equally accessible in all schools and in all districts so that students of all races, economic means, learning competencies, and learning disabilities have an equal opportunity to access the superhighway and to improve the direction thereof.

    Lesar, S. (1998). Use of assistive technology with young children with disabilities: Current status and training needs. Journal of Early Interventions, 21(2), 146-159.

    Toward an internet-driven, theoretically-based, innovative approach to sex education

    Review (ShanShan Cheng)
    This article discusses the advantages of application of Internet for teaching sex education for individuals, and an internet-driven, theoretically based, innovation approach to sex education named as IBM, Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model. The first advantage of using Internet for sex education is that Internet integrates the texts, graphics, audios, video, and other multimedia, and these integrations make the Internet become a rich and interactive place to learn about sex. Therefore, the author considers Internet will be a good material for teacher to educate the students and for individuals who want to know more about sexual knowledge. Second, since people can get on the Internet wherever and whenever they are, it will be convenient for the audience to check it out when they need the sexual information. Third, the moderate cost is another reason that the authors recommend learners to hung on Internet and get useful sexual information. The author uses a term Penta-A Engine, including anonymity, availability, affordability, acceptability and alones of using Internet, to conclude the merits of Internet for sexual educational use. Besides, the authors express how to implement the IBM model and why it is an effective method to instruct sexual knowledge. Moreover, there is some helpful suggestion for the designers who want to design a web page about sex education, and a clear and meaningful survey about the sex health websites is also added in this article.

    For Asian, we rarely talk about sex. In my generation, neither my teachers nor my parents did teach us about sexual knowledge. We learn from TV or reading books. However, it is very dangerous for the teenagers to learn sex knowledge form those media, because there are a lot of inappropriate and wrong information on our TV programs and magazines. Fortunately, right now, people are not so afraid of talking about sex with children, and we all know the importance of sex education. Also, the WWW have offered tremendous amount of information in this field. That really helps the teacher preparing the material for the sex health class. I have tried to teach the students about sex health. However, the information provided by the school textbook is inefficient and ineffective. For this reason, I searched the WWW and found some very helpful information including graphics and video. I used these materials to teach my students, and they really gained a lot from those additional material. For whom wants to teach about sex health, this article offer many useful advices, and this article is worthy having a look. Reference: Barak, A. and Fisher, W. A., (2001, November). Toward an internet-driven, theoretically-based, innovative approach to sex education.

    Journal of Sex Research, 38, 4, 324~332. Retrieved on February 4, 2003, from EBSCO host database.

    Curriculum Page Development: Utilize and Organize Resources Found on the World Wide Web.

    Review (ShanShan Cheng)
    In this article, the author, Debby Mitchell, indicates that using the web pages as curriculum pages will be a new tendency in the future, and it is necessary for the pre-teacher to learn how to integrate the application of WWW into the teaching material. Mitchell mentions a project practiced at the University of Central Florida, which prepare the pre- teachers to develop the skills of using Internet resources to deliver the knowledge to the students. She explains the definition of curriculum page and what the advantages Internet have that make it become such powerful resources and media to teach. The essential elements of developing the curriculum page are also suggested in her article. For example, the curriculum page should consist of the title of topic, the five links to other pages found on the Internet, and a graphic(Mitchell). In addition, she describes the steps and assessments used in training the pre-teachers. According to her research, she, therefore, believes that allowing the pre-teachers to create and explore more about the curriculum pages will both help those teachers and their students in the future.

    I consider that is very important for a teacher to know how to explore Internet and find some useful information from it. Since information provided by the Internet is not only the traditional texts-only knowledge, we can enrich our learning and teaching by using it. Therefore, to provide some web and computer knowledge for the future teachers should be a significant subject in Educational School. In Taiwan, we had no this program for the future teacher. The teachers learn by teaching and trying, and it takes time for them to really be familiar with those technologies. I noted that using computer and integrating the information will really help the instruction, and now more and more teachers are dedicated in learning computer education. Consequently, I really hope not merely in the United States but also in Taiwan more educational school can provide this kind of courses for the teacher and future instructor to learn more about using Internet resource and WebPages to teaching.

    Mitchell, D., (1999, June). Curriculum Page Development: Utilize and Organize Resources Found on the World Wide Web. Educational Media International, 36,2,141~144. Retrieved on February 4, 2003, from EBSCO host database.

    Click and Clink: Shopping for baubles? Jewelry is one of the Webs shining success stories

    Abstract (Chieh-kang Chin)

    People willing to go shopping jewelry on-line are getting more and more recently. Just like the publishing industry, the jewelry business has got startrd in many ways. With plenty selections and discounted prices, this just-fit-the-internet business has grown. Even though their prices are high, the jewelry, especially diamonds, are easy to be bought and sold on the Web because of the qualified technical specifications(the 4Cs). However, online jewelry shoppers are still facing many crises, like fraud and transaction security on the internet. Based on those anxieties above, customers should make sure that they buy goods from a website that provides a money-back guarantee, have already done enough research about the merchandise they desire to buy, and ascertain that they are trading on a safe cyberspace.


    Shopping for baubles? While almost every e-industry is going to find out its survival way during the past 10 years, a tiny business, the jewelry company, has been successful shining on the Internet. Its growing sales shows that expensive merchandise like jewelry can be commerce by this way, so do other luxury goods as houses and so on. However, it still has lots of work to do before turning e-commerce into major shopping approach, for people wont buy cars on-line without test driving, pick a perfume by its sexy bottle, or choose a brand new villa right after a virtual tour by a web-cam. I believe those points above are significant barriers to extend e-power in traditional shopping, and they will be overcame pretty soon just like other cyber-problems overcomed.


    Hamilton, Anita. (2003). Click and Clink: Shopping for baubles? Jewelry is one of the Webs shining success stories Retrieved February 10, 2003 from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101030210-418567,00.html.

    Whos Afraid Of E-Books? Textbook makers feared the dot-coms.

    Abstract (Chieh-kang Chin)

    Book companies seemed to have a critical point just a few years ago. Many people were believing that dot-com would takeover book publishers business, and even book publishers themselves thougnt so, too. All major book publishers were panic, especially textbook company. They were afraid that dot-com would put them all out of business because of characteristics of internet. However, traditional book publishers realized who owned the chips. A recovered industry with more confident showed up. Book publishers understand that who own the content, who carry the weapon. They established their own Electroniclize means and pace, and turned dot-com into partners or even captives. Obviously, Book publishers like Houghton Mifflin, McGraw-Hill Education, and Pearson Education, are winners in this battle, they are not defeated by dot-com. They just absorbed them and getting bigger.


    I thought the appearance of dot-com had made every industry scared. But it is not omnipotent, and still has to be developed and shaped. Not only book publishers but movie and music industries are violated by dot-com. Any publication can be spreaded to everywhere worldwide as long as somebody is willing to share. I stand on a slightly different viewpoint from this article. Even though the publishers own the content, but they seem to miss the target. Their enemies are not certain of e-companies, but individuals hidden in the whole cyberspace. I do not think they will triumph before everyone surfing in the network has correct concepts of copyright.


    Brown, Eryn. (2001). Whos Afraid Of E-Books? Textbook makers feared the dot-
    coms. Then they realized who owned the content. Retrieved February 11, 2003 from http://www.business2.com/articles/mag/0,1640,9206,00.html

    Using Emerging Technologies to Help Bridge the Gap Between University Theory and Classroom Practice: Challenges and Successes, School Science Mathematics

    Review (Cheryl Lawler)
    This article presents the problems and successes faced in an attempt to integrate a web-supported professional development system into university taught elementary science methods courses. Current educational theories support the use of inquiry-based teaching in all levels of science instruction. However, very few educators use the inquiry-based approach and opportunities for actual pre-service observation of the methodology are very limited. One alternative to real-life experience is to videotape lessons (or units) presented using the inquiry method. In this study, the videotapes were provided on-line and supplemented with other materials, such as lesson plans, examples of student work, and other typical classroom resources. The pre-service students participated in instructor-monitored discussions linked to the videos and assessed the methodology, its effectiveness, and their reactions to the technique. The three main issues identified by the web-supported experiment involved (1) providing the pre-service teacher a platform for meaningful interactions with other pre-service teachers and with master teachers, (2) providing a forum for reflection and articulation of pre-service teachers belief system, and (3) addressing the technical, social, and institutional challenges of using a web-based professional development system. The last issue includes the technical difficulties of timing on-line components to a course, downloading streaming video on home computers, and providing timely response in on-line question forums.

    Since I completed secondary-level science certification two years ago and am currently integrating a web-supported component into the course I teach at UNT, this article struck a chord. Most current pre-service training for elementary (and secondary) science teachers provides very little methodology or practical experience. Many pre-service elementary teachers have limited experience and background and, therefore, have little confidence in their ability to teach science. Development of effective pre-service training is imperative to our ability to provide quality science instruction in the classroom. Use of web-based resources can expand our experiences and encourage collaborative interactions among educators. However, web-based systems do present challenges in timing, equipment compatibility, resources, and availability. I spend many hours a week answering e-mail, re-setting quiz submissions, linking notes, reviews, animations, quizzes, and grades.


    Barnett, M., Keating, T., Harwood, W., & Saam, J. (2002). Using Emerging Technologies to Help Bridge the Gap Between University Theory and Classroom Practice: Challenges and Successes, School Science Mathematics, Oct2002, Vol. 102 Issue 6, p299, 15p. Retrieved February 10, 2003, from http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=3D7573842&db3Daph

    Understandings of Solutions to Differential Equations Through Contexts, Web-Based Simulations, and Student Discussion

    Review (Cheryl Lawler)
    This article outlines a study of the use of the WWW to teach elementary differential equations using simulation software. The traditional approach to teaching differential equations involves presenting a wide variety of methods for solving a wide variety of problem types, training the student to discern patterns among the problem types and then apply the appropriate method for solving differential equations from among those types. This study taught the course by having students solve realistic problems from the scientific literature with simulations on the WWW. The students had the choice of working with Java applets written specifically for the projects, or through the use of DynaSys, a differential equations application for Microsoft Windows. The data collected in the study suggests that the students developed the same relational understandings of differential equations and their solutions in the context of web-based, application-oriented instruction as they do in a traditional instructional method.


    The implementation of simulations in teaching math and science is a new field, quickly gaining popularity. Understanding the relationships between variables is often difficult. I feel that the students more readily make connections between the symbolic representations and the observations they model if they can see the changes in a simulation.
    The study compared traditional teaching methods with a method augmented by simulations. Although the educational results were not significantly different in the two situations, the students using simulations gained the insight of experimentation and the benefits of working in groups.


    Slavit, D., Cooper,K., & LoFaro, T. (2002). Understandings of Solutions to Differential Equations Through Contexts, Web-Based Simulations, and Student Discussion, School Science & Mathematics, Dec2002, Vol. 102 Issue 8, p380, 11p. Retrieved on February 10, 2003, from http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=3D8781014&db=3Daph

    Bring Community: into the Online Learning Environment: What, Why and How

    Review (Connie Melton)
    A Community in the online environment possesses four characteristics:
    1. People interacting to meet their own needs
    2. Shared sense of purpose
    3. Explicit or implicit policies, protocols and/;or rituals
    4. Computer-mediated interaction between members

    Experts argue that the community is the key to success in online learning. The primary emphasis in setting the stage for the community is in establishing the design, look (welcoming and easy to navigate) and feel of the course and environment prior to the start of the class: goals, syllabi, guidelines, objectives, and general website construction as well as structural support for course communication and interactions. A team-approach can also be effective with small group discussions, collaborative writings, activities and simulations.

    The article includes a rubric for assessing participants feedback and interaction with fellow students and emphasizes participation will be curtailed if members arent comfortable with their use of the communication tools. The instructor should acknowledge the anxieties and concerns of the members in their opening communication recognizing that these are the highest at the beginning of a course.

    Personal Insight:
    This article was interesting to me as this is a large portion of my job function. Although our communities are built for our employees and not students the basic functionality is the same. Our purpose is not only to disseminate information but to get our Educators in our hospitals sharing information, best practices, and blended curricula they have developed. This article confirmed that our approach is the most effective and cost-efficient method of obtaining our goal of a community of Educators.

    Silvester, John M., (Fall, 2001). Bring Community: into the Online Learning Environment: What, Why and How. Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems, volume 15, number 4, pages 17-21.

    End-user Training Management Systems

    Review (Connie Melton)
    Many simple, routine jobs have been replaced by computer-operated machinery leaving humans the jobs that are more cognitively demanding. As new programs are rolled out the key to improvement is end-user training. The training process should contain: initiation (needs assessment, material development), formal training (employees receive or develop needed skills) and post-training (outcome assessment).
    Many challenges face training management including diversity (age, sexual, cultural, etc.) and a constant need of corporations to produce their return on investment. Other avenues for formulating ROI not generally considered are: elimination of training due to better needs assessments; reduction of training time due to end-user profiling; and reduction of expenses for certifications due to improved records.
    An example of training management from Hewlett Packard is given, complete with a broad overview of how effective this training has been for employees and consumers. HP is cited because its training management system is scalable to accommodate users, courses and instructors.

    Personal insight:
    It was thought-provoking to see other ROI indicators listed than those we generally consider. Also, we recently completed an online needs assessment, but now Im wondering if the people who created it listed the appropriate questions as we did not obtain the type of information about our users that this article discusses.
    The article discusses taking training information from several sources and combining it into one system. This sounds easy on a high-level basis; however, I have been dealing with this issue for over a year in combining information from several systems into one new HRMS system and understand that the differences in computer programs and operational systems significantly hinder the ability of the databases to talk to each other. Once all of this information can be assimilated into the one container it will be easier not only to track the learning our employees have completed but assess the educational needs of those employees by profiling their job competencies versus the skills and trainings they have completed. In essence, it sounds great - but its not as easy as it would seem.

    Huang, Albert H. (2002-2003). End-user Training Management Systems. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, volume 31, number 1, pages 19-34.

    Perspectives on Lifelong Learning: The View From a Distance

    Summary (Debbie Huffman)
    Approximately one-third of the two and four year colleges in the U.S. offer some form of distance education. Is distance education always the right answer? The author states that determining if it is the right answer must be an individual decision for both the college and the student. The article discusses factors that should be addressed in this decision-making process.

    Distance education may cover many different delivery methods, but basically it means the teacher and the student are not in the same location. Timing, content, the level of study, interaction and assessment all factor into distance education. Synchronous and asynchronous methods were discussed. The author believes that asynchronous methods, which include programmed materials and independent study further separate the teacher and the student because direct interaction is very limited. Subject matter must be reviewed to decide if it is appropriate for distance learning. Would an introductory chemistry lab or conversational Spanish work well? On the other hand, creative writing would be a good candidate. Another consideration is the appropriateness of simulations or other tools for adult learning. Are they appropriate for the bachelors level or the masters level? Would something else work better?

    Under the topic of interaction and assessment, the author asks several thought provoking questions: How does the school under consideration encourage the use of various learning methods? How are the grades and degrees recognized by other schools or employers? How do the student and the teacher communicate? How does the teacher determine how much the student has learned and assign a grade? These and other questions should be considered. Answers will vary among different distance education programs. The lifelong learner needs to be aware of course and program procedures and college credentials. The author argues that adult learners can take control of their education through distance learning. They can consider their family and work commitments and learn at their own pace. There is more flexibility in course scheduling because distance education is not constrained to a classroom. Distance learning may be a more time effective way to earn a graduate degree and should be considered for career development, leadership and management development and mid-career changes. Distance education is a valid alternative choice. With professors that are both academically qualified and experts in their field, a superior education can be gained through distance education.

    My Reaction:
    The article was interesting and raised some valid points. I was particularly interested in the topic because I teach several distance education courses, I serve on the technology committee where distance education is a primary concern, and I have taken several distance education courses. Many of the reasons she gave for a life-long learner taking distance education courses apply to me. They are convenient and flexible. I teach full-time in higher education and spend time outside of the classroom in class preparation. In addition I have a busy family life. Attaining my masters degree is a priority. I will be able to do it quicker because I can take many of my courses through distance learning.

    The list of course and program procedures is good. I will probably use the questions in designing distance learning courses that I teach. I also like the fact that she stressed career development and leadership development through distance learning. I agree with the author in her assessment that you can receive a superior education through a quality distance education course. The article is a good resource that I will keep for future reference.

    Forbes, Judith L. (2000, November). Perspectives on Lifelong Learning: The View From a Distance. First Monday, 3, Number 11. Retrieved January 8, 2003, from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue5_11/forbes/index.html

    Hypertext Links: Whither Thou Goest, and Why

    Summary (Debbie Huffman)
    The article explored the rhetorical and semantic principles underlying the development of links. The term hypertext was actually coined in the early 1960s by Ted Nelson. He desired a way to take thoughts and place them in a structure that was not necessarily linear. It should be a way to save the readers time and effort. There are several types of hypertext links used today--static, dynamic, explicit, and implicit and they are built through computational models. Links are used to provide relationships between different types of information. Hypertext has been defined as a web of relationships. Authors will expand on an item of information by linking, or connecting, it to another item of information. The user who chooses to follow the link establishes the relationship of linking. Thus, semantic value is recognized.

    The author points out that no hypertext can be separated from the subjectivity of human choice. They can be considered a social/cultural phenomenon. Someone has to decide what information will be linked to what information. Users must constantly decipher rhetorical claims from websites since the Web is the worlds largest source of information. Hypertext is open to interpretation by the user, and the user must decide if he or she believes the piece of information being linked to.

    The user ultimately determines the meaning of a link, but authors have reasons for using links in their text. They base those reasons on what they believe the semantic value to be. In addition, site developers must be relied upon to be consistent in their linking practices. If they fail, websites become confusing and annoying. A table showing the classification of links according to primary function is included in the article. Types of links mentioned are: authorizing, commenting, enhancing, exemplifying, mode changing referencing/citing/ and self-selecting. A definition of each type of link follows with examples of the link type. The author summarizes that links are semantic by nature and rhetorical in purpose and he suggests that the classification system be applied to all links on most, if not all, organizational/informational Web sites.

    My Reaction:
    When I first started reading this article, I wasnt sure that someone could write 15 pages about linking without loosing my attention. However, this was a very interesting article and well researched. It made me think about hypertext links in a whole new way. The author raises some valid points. The systematic classification of links according to primary function presented in the article is a good recommendation and one that should be more consistently followed. I agree that the user determines the usefulness of links and that the author and the user are not always on the same wavelength. Web authors should read this article. It would be interesting to see a follow-up to this article and to any research connecting site usability and linking.

    Harrison, Claire. (2002, October). Hypertext Links: Whither Thou Goest, and Why. First Monday, 7, Number 10. Retrieved January 8, 2003, from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_10/harrison/index.html

    Master Clusters: Savvy Web Searches?

    Review (Dennis Westman)
    This article discusses how to find various instructional resources on the web. As the article points out, there is quite a bit of information, but not nearly as much as one might think. And when faculty do find a site that might have the information, the results are too numerous to go through in any manageable amount of time. In order to cope with this, the author talks about ways to make smaller, more specialized groups or clusters to assist various faculty in their search for instructional materials. Essentially, in this model, there would be smaller, highly specialized concentrations of materials in an easy-to-use environment.

    I feel that this article was right on target with what many of my faculty are feeling. Often times, when they are searching for some sort of instructional support item, the results returned are just too numerous and too overwhelming for them to weed through. One of my departments jobs has been to locate various resources ourselves and provide them to the faculty. Of course, not every item we find is useful to the faculty - but we do our best to look through the results and give them ones that are extremely content-rich. I hope that this article will help with discussions in creating a more useful, relevant, search for instructional resources.

    Gilbert, Steven W. (2002). Master Clusters: Savvy Web Searches? Retrieved February 8, 2003 from http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=6990.

    Not Just Another Pretty Course Web Site.

    Review (Dennis Westman)
    As more and more courses are being placed online or enhanced with web supplements, schools are looking for ways, other than static websites, for faculty to place materials in an easy-to-use environment. The author talks about how his department was asked to place course materials on websites. The more they thought about it, they more they realized that placing materials on static websites was a start, but would not offer the sort of dynamic the department was interested in. This led to discussions about course management systems. Apparently, the department had used the university-wide course management system, but was not too impressed with the results. The department then decided to create their own system using run-of-the-mill technologies. After a year of use, it appears to be successful.

    I found this article to be quite interesting and indicative of the cycle that many instructional units move through. This mirrors much of my own personal experience. When I first started working at my university, we proceeded with the idea of having static websites to deliver various instructional content. Then, as time moved on, we found that we needed a system that could provide additional tools and was easier to update and maintain. Unlike the department discussed in the article, we went with a course management system and have been extremely pleased with the software.

    Collura, Michael. (2003). Not Just Another Pretty Course Web Site. Retrieved February 8, 2003 from <http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=7254>http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=7254.

    How does it differ from Traditional or Computer Literacy?

    Review (Doug Lewis)
    This article discusses how the internet and the web have increased information literacy?s appearance and necessity. It starts out discussing how literacy means the ability to write, read, and also calculate. Also discussed is PC literacy such as the operation and understanding of a computer. Information literacy is discussed as being sort of a merger between the two. For example the ability to read and write is combined with technology to do something like read internet sites or write email.
    The article seemed to stress the idea that information literacy is not pressed upon the average student as much as the other forms. Today organizations and businesses are scrambling to train and improve people?s information literacy. The article finally concluded saying that ?it is necessary to make information literacy education mandatory?, and even lists some suggestions on making improvements in the educational sector. These included ideas such as reforming government processes, and more investment in promoting the idea in educational institutions.

    I feel that this is a good idea but I also think the author goes a little overboard discussing it. First of all I think it?s a natural progression in modern education, if the right tools are there. Granted that in less fortunate schools where the tools (computers) are not available, this may require a little more effort. Second, is it seems focused only on local feelings and ideas regarding technology. What about other countries where computers are hardly ever seen or even touched by students? I would think that getting these people up to speed so that they can be self-sufficient when it comes to informational technology is also very important.

    Nishimuro, Taizo (January ? March 2003) Information Literacy: How does it differ from Traditional or Computer Literacy? Retrieved 2/5/03 from http://www.techknowlogia.org/TKL_active_pages2/CurrentArticles/main.asp?FileType=HTML&ArticleID=3

    Technology and Education: Between Chaos and Order

    Review (Doug Lewis)
    This article attempts to answer the question, How can emerging technologies be effectively utilized to achieve optimal education? On one side of the debate the article extends positive notions of technology such as the internet is essential toward education, allowing growth and evolution. Yet on the other hand it gives the idea that, ?technologies are beginning to exercise a benevolent tyranny over humankind. People have become compulsive information consumers, who favor the passive reception of information as a form of entertainment over the more challenging act of thinking.? The information explosion influenced the rise of two different ideas amongst places of learning. For example, some institutions doubt the advance of technology?s potential to assist in improve learning, while many institutions confidently market themselves as electronic universities, and other such labels that indicate their position in the race of information technology. Many institutions figh
    t for universal access and compete in ways to attract students to the ?virtual classroom?, promising the earning of degrees in remote places.

    While I do see up-to-date information technology in schools as a tremendous benefit and convenience, I do believe it is possible to go ?overboard?. A good example of this would be something like a small school going out to buy the biggest and baddest server available, not having a clue what to do with such a purchase. The war for the best technology has become ?cut-throat? and the end result has been this example many times. But if handled effectively, it is very successful. Such as the idea of being able to learn, study, and get a college degree without making a journey through a traffic nightmare to get to class on time.

    Hamza, Mohammad Khalid and Alhalabi, Bassem. (1999). Technology and Education: Between Chaos and Order Retrieved on 2/10/03 from http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue4_3/hamza/index.html

    Blueprint to develop a Great Web Site

    Summary (Eric Elterman)

    This article discusses the importance of planning ahead when developing a website. Planning can save time and ensure the sites quality. The designer should have goals and objectives. Goals provide the general frame work and objectives are precise statements about specific web site content. Simplicity, balance, emphasis and unity are important design principles. Visuals should convey one basic idea. Labels, arrows and contrasting text or colors can provide emphasis for important elements. Formal or Informal balance helps to create pleasant visuals. The elements of a visual should also be tied together into a single meaningful unit. Pages on the site should be clear and concise.


    This article Stresses the importance of planning and thinking about design. I agreed with the design principles mentioned by the author. Websites should be simple and to the point as much as possible. I dont care for sites that are crowded with graphics and colors.

    Ruffini, Michael F. (2002, May). Blueprint to develop a Great Web Site, Retrieved January 31, 2003, from http://www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/A3389.cfm

    Basics of K-12 Web Site Design

    Summary (Eric Elterman)
    This article emphasizes the importance of web content. Content should be organized and easy to navigate. Good websites are kept fresh with current updates. Sites should also include reasons for future visits. The article suggest placing news, homework assignments and other information that can be considered come again content. Including lots of information about the community can help students and parents get involved.


    Web content is defiantly important when building a site. With out content there is no reason to publish a site. Of course, organizing the information is also important. Sites should be easy to read and to navigate. Unless the purpose of the site is to archive old information, sites should be updated and kept fresh. Including information about the community is especially important for K-12 web design. Parents and students should be involved.

    Glagnocavo, Gregory (2001 December), Retrieved January 31, 2003, from http://www.pekin.net/pekin108/webmasters/class2/tips1.html

    Clean Up Your Web Pages With HTML Tidy

    Summary (Greg Fisher)
    When editing HTML its easy to make mistakes. Wouldnt it be nice if there was a simple way to fix these mistakes automatically and tidy up sloppy editing into a nicely layed out markup? Well now there is! Dave Reggetts HTML TIDY is a free utility for doing just that.

    It cleans up mismatched end tags, end tags in the wrong order, problems with heading emphasis, and even lays out the code in a nice, neat format making it very easy for our teacher to correct...

    Its easy to use, comes in all platforms, and can help you to pass this class!

    The maintenance of HTML TIDY has now been taken over by a group of enthusiastic volunteers at Source Forge (Great place for open source...FREE software). See <http://tidy.sourceforge.net>http://tidy.sourceforge.net

    Author, Dave Reggett (part of the w3.org web consortium) Title, Clean Up Your Web Pages With HTML Tidy Retrieved February 11, 2003, from http://www.w3.org/People/Raggett/tidy/

    Boogie Jacks Lifes Little Goodies: Finding Creativity

    Review (Greg Fisher)
    (Youll find about 500 pages of web site building help, graphics, humor, inspiration, and of course, the products and services he offers so he can continue to work from home instead of getting a real job.)

    Dennis is a good friend who started his web site about the same time I started my first site. (see http://biznetstation.com for html codes, references, colors, css references, my books, JavaMagic and Web Design CRASH Course and lots more...sorry for the plug.) In this article, Dennis talks about breaking out of your shell, taking a chance and going for it. Lets face it, creativity can be scary. You wear creativity at your edge of your sleeves...and that can get personal indeed. But breaking the shell of your existence is where the MAGIC is at.

    I think everyone (I hope, anyway) will find this site useful, informative, and at times, funny. Youll find a ton of great scripts to use for this class, graphics for free download, and of course, witty articles that will help you to pause, look at life, and take time to smell the roses. Enjoy.

    Author, Dennis Gaskill, C.C. (2001)
    Title of article. Boogie Jacks Lifes Little Goodies: Finding Creativity
    Retrieved February 11, 2003 from http://www.boogiejack.com/goody003.html

    Web Authoring in XML

    Abstract (JungFang Hsieh)

    Web authoring has become a routine activity. Almost everyone from secretaries to managers now produces HTML documents. Some organizations adhere to strict coding practices that require Web authors to create valid HTML documents. The approach to HTML coding is loose and relaxed. The individual Web author determines the code quality. Many create a page using a mixture of standard and proprietary browser tags and put it up, not thinking of, or caring about, quality. The end result is that intranets and public Web sites are filled with no standardized coding that is difficult to maintain, let alone redesign or migrate to a new standard.


    After reading the article, I think HTML is very powerful tool to use in writing web pages. It contents many different codes. Each code has its own meaning and usage. To use HTML properly, the learner has to do some more practice in order to use the HTML without any difficulty


    Darlene Fichter, (2002, November) Online, Vol. 26, Issue 6 Retrieved on February 10, 2003, from EBSCO host database

    DESIGN A Great Site

    Abstract (JungFang Hsieh)

    The author offers the readers many tools to create a nice web site, like Front page, Notetap, and Dreamweaver. In this article, it says that a business without a Web site is like a house without a door. Whether customers, suppliers, or partners, people expect to learn about you through your Web site. And if you dont have a Web site, then theyll probably look elsewhere. The author also compares the difference between those tools; moreover, there is no the best tool to build a web sit. The major factor that people might select the tool is depending on how easy to build a web site, because in business market, the employee are asked to create a new web page after a meeting or in a short time. The Web authoring solution you choose will influence the look of your site, how you manage it, and what types of content you can include. Therefore, there isnt just one solution that is right for everyone.

    In my personal opinion, I think that today is a web-based society, so knowing how to use the tools to create a web site has been a major part in the business and in education. 90% of computer owners have internet access and ever browser more then one web site; therefore, the web page has become the most powerful tool to expose the companys purpose to the costumers to buy their product such as Walmart and Best buy, both of them have their own web site. However, there are many tools in the market, so that some learners will confuse to choose the most suitable one among them. If I know all of the tools advantage and disadvantage of each tool, I will be willing to learn all of them, but I cant, because the language of the web site is very difficult.


    <http://web24.epnet.com/searchpost.asp?tb=1&_ug=dbs+0+ln+en%2Dus+sid+4DBDB299%2DBE79%2D475D%2DB463%2D85DDA522BFF4%40Sessionmgr6+6F6A&_us=bs+web++authoring+ds+web++authoring+dstb+KS+gl+%7BFT++y%7D+hd+0+hs+0+or+Date+ri+KAAACBUC00166963+sm+KS+so+b+ss+SO+5F49>Mendelson, Edward; <http://web24.epnet.com/searchpost.asp?tb=1&_ug=dbs+0+ln+en%2Dus+sid+4DBDB299%2DBE79%2D475D%2DB463%2D85DDA522BFF4%40Sessionmgr6+6F6A&_us=bs+web++authoring+ds+web++authoring+dstb+KS+gl+%7BFT++y%7D+hd+0+hs+0+or+Date+ri+KAAACBUC00166963+sm+KS+so+b+ss+SO+5F49>Simone, Luisa <http://web24.epnet.com/hjafdetail.asp?tb=1&_ug=dbs+0+ln+en%2Dus+sid+4DBDB299%2DBE79%2D475D%2DB463%2D85DDA522BFF4%40Sessionmgr6+6F6A&_us=bs+web++authoring+ds+web++authoring+dstb+KS+gl+%7BFT++y%7D+hd+0+hs+0+or+Date+ri+KAAACBUC00166963+sm+KS+so+b+ss+SO+5F49>PC Magazine, 05/23/2000, Vol. 19 Issue 10. Retrieved on February 10, 2003, from Academic Search Premier database.

    Systematic planning in the design of an educational web site:

    Summary (Jason Huber)
    Michael Ruffini in his article шSystematic Planning in the Design of an Educational Web Siteш writes about the need for developing a structured approach for creating a faculty web site. The approach he suggests is a seven step system: Target Audience, Objectives, Home Page and Contents, Site Navigation Structure, Page Design, Text and Graphics, and Selecting a Web Authoring Program. Ruffini asserts шusing a model prevents frustration and makes efficient and productive use of time in creating Web Pages from start to finishш(58). In dealing with the Target Audience web authors should structure the Web Site around the need and expectations of the users. Second, they should develop a clear Objective that will help direct the entire planning process. The Home Page and Content should contain a minimum of links to specific areas within the site, and a photo of the faculty.

    Ruffini discusses the Site Navigation Structure next. He purports several basic structures such as sequences and grids, but the thrust of this section is that a Web Site should be well organized, easy to navigate, and not haphazard. After structure the author deals with Page Design. When considering page design web authors should consider three main ideas: Visual balance and color, Page length, and Design Configuration. A few of the suggestions Ruffini puts forward are chucking information, correlating page topics and graphics, and limiting graphic size so to allow pages to load quickly. The final issue of page design and style is Text and Graphics. Web Authors have a variety of graphic and text elements at their disposal; however, it is not necessary to use all of them in every Web Page. Ruffini cautions not to over use embellishments and that it is important to keep fonts, styles, and sizes consistent throughout one Web Site. The last issue relates to authoring choice and experience, selecting a Web Authoring Program. There are many programs available on the market today and selecting one may not be an easy task, but Ruffini offers one helpful hint. He says, шSoftware should not determine what a faculty member wishes to accomplish with his or her site. Instead, select the program deemed best able to assist one in accomplishing oneшs goals.ш

    After reading this article, I was struck by how generic the information seemed. It was all good information, but it certainly did not apply specifically to Educational Web Sites. Websites throughout the Net should be following these sorts of guidelines. It is true that educational, informational, and also business websites should follow these sorts of guidelines more strictly than perhaps an individuals website, but most of the information could help anyone develop an easily understandable site. Although he provided several good graphics to help illustrate his points, I was somewhat disappointed by the lack of specific examples that he offered. Most of the issues he discussed are covered within the first few classes of any good Web Authoring class. It is good, however, to keep these issues in mind when designing a professional website.

    Ruffini, M. F. (2000). Systematic planning in the design of an educational web site. Educational Technology, March ш April, 58-64.

    We are what we weave? Issues and Guidelines for learning by web design

    Summary (Jason Huber)
    The authors in this article did research on an emerging instructional technique called Learning-by-Web Design (LWD). This instructional strategy involves students learning both web design and instructional content. The instructional content does not necessarily have to do with technology. In fact, the two groups that were studied were an 8th grade science class and a graduate class in psychology. In the article they discuss the positive and negative outcomes of involving web authoring into the classroom design. The following are a few of the suggestions to teacher or professors that may want to implement this strategy. First, they suggest that teachers not use шLWD as the sole vehicle for student learning on a given topicш and that other group activities be implemented such as lectures. Second, they suggest using groups, making them diverse, and not delegating tasks within the groups. Also, instructors wanting to implement this type of curriculum should make the objectives clear and help the students understand what will be expected of them.

    Given the appropriate amount of time this technique can be highly affective. I have had personal experience in a class that used this technique. It certainly increased interest and promoted hyper-vigilance towards details. Knowing that anyone can access the information you publish makes you extra-aware of the information you put down, in terms of content and design. Web design may be relatively easy to pick up in terms of a computer language but it does increase the content knowledge that a teacher must teach. For instance, in the science class, students not only had to learn the science information but they also had to pick up HTML as well, in the same amount of time all other classes had to learn just the science curriculum. It does make the learning process fun and exciting and can take the class into realms of learning that could not otherwise have been achieved. For instance, a science class may not have ever been able to get into a debate over the idea of form vs. function when it comes to Websites. Is the design or the content the most important issue? If a teacher has the knowledge and the enthusiasm, I think it is a great way to spend a semester.

    Lim, B., Plucker, J. A., & Nowak, J. A. (2001). We are what we weave? Issues and guidelines for learning by web design. Educational Technology, Nov.-Dec., 23-27.

    Is the Web Ready for TESL (and vice versa)?

    Summary (Jimmy Wibowo)
    This article point out that internet can also be a tool for teaching ESL(English as a Second Language). It points out what internet can do for teaching ESL Moreover, the hardware requirements that is required can be affordable by most schools. However, putting the curriculum online needs a little more preparation in terms of how students and teacher can have access, teaching students and teachers how to use the system, and what kind of materials that are appropriate for the curriculum. Though the article made a caution that the web can sometimes be a maze of information, the benefits outweigh the disadvantages of using the web.

    Personal reaction
    The vastness of the web can sometimes be stumbling block for students because they may get lost in the vastness of the information. However, if the curriculum are to assembled those information and arrange so that students can go to the right website and learn from it. This can be done through assembling hyperlinks that is relevant to the studentfs studies and teacher are encourage to find or create their own resources so that the learning experience can be enjoyable.

    Szendeffy, John de. (Summer 1998). Is the Web Ready for TESL (and vice versa)? , MATSOL Currents. Retrieved on 02/06/2003 from <http://www.bu.edu/celop/mll/Currents2.html>http://www.bu.edu/celop/mll/Currents2.html

    U.S. government standards will affect Web developers -- but how?

    Summary (Jimmy Wibowo)
    The article mentioned about Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act that requires that Federal agencies electronic and information technology must be accessible to people with disabilities. The phrase Federal Web sites extends to intranets, public Web sites, and certain other organizations sites, developed by government Web designers or by contract. This has made some confusion among the web designers because they do not know how to respond this piece of legislation. The article is written to clear up misconceptions surrounding the publication of this piece of legislation. These misconceptions are ranging from the fear of companies being sued because their gpublich website does not comply with what ADA recommendation to the use of software to solve all accessibility issues. In the end, the effort of designing accessibility doesnft have to be creating ugly website or text only website; it can also be a good looking and useful website for all people.

    Personal reaction

    Itfs true that creating a website for accessibility presents web authors with significant challenges. Though, it is a wonderful opportunity for them to experience new ways of making a website. It is also a wonderful effort because it can help a lot of people with disabilities have access to the internet, thus enriching their knowledge.

    Tang, Beth Archibald. (May 2001). U.S. government standards will affect Web developers -- but how? Retrieved on 02/06/2003 from http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/us-tang/

    Language Testing Tools and Technologies

    Summary (Lauren McDermott)
    This article discusses the use of technology in testing, specifically language testing. It begins by discussing history of computer and technology involvement in language assessment, but quickly moves into the role of Internet applications in testing. Web-based tests offer many possibilities in delivery, interactivity, customization, and score storage and retrieval. To some extend the technology used determines what features can be built into a test. The author discusses the different programming languages and technologies often used in conjunction with HTML and the different features they offer. CGI scripts offer security, but partial answers do not receive credit and feedback is limited since the whole test must be completed before submitting. On the other hand, JavaScript offers feedback after each question, but not as much security since the source code is accessible to users. Java offers security, but also suffers from slow performance and compatibility issues. In recent years, authoring tools have been developed to enable easy creation of web-based tests. These software programs create HTML or JavaScript, but do not require the users to know the languages. The article also provides a perspective on the future of web-based testing. Many new possibilities exist as the development of speech recognition technologies improve and listening and speaking capabilities become more of a reality for web-based testing.

    I enjoyed reading this article and learning about the possibilities available to create web-based testing. It was interesting to learn about the features offered by the different programming languages. They all seem to have a mix of advantages and disadvantages. The part of the article I liked the most was the outlook for the future of web-based testing. I think the incorporation of listening and speaking will make web-based tests and training tutorials even more exciting to make.


    Godwin-Jones, B. (2001, May). Language testing tools and technologies. Language Learning & Technology, 5(2), 8-12. Retrieved January 31, 2003, from http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num2/emerging/default.html

    Designing and Managing Information in the Fast Lane

    Summary (Lauren McDermott)
    This article focuses on the challenge of information management and presentation. It begins by discussing the changing role of librarians and the balance that they must find between keeping up with the ever-evolving technology of the Internet and long-term information management. Many people now turn to the Internet for information and research and they expect the information to be current and correct. Because of this, the roles of librarians, technologists and web-content providers are beginning to merge together. More and more librarians are learning web technologies and becoming web administrators for library information systems. At the same time, web authors and content providers are discovering the need to understand the needs, habits and searching tendencies of information seekers. The article also discusses the importance of tracking and measuring web site usage, as a means to become familiar with users information needs and navigation habits. By studying and understanding the user, web authors can improve accessibility to their sites. The article concludes by discussing the need to balance design, content and functionality. It strongly suggests that a web site or information resource needs to have a specific mission and that this mission should guide the decisions made about information storage. It suggests some of the major decisions that need to be made include: the extent data redundancy in different formats, whether a high-end or low-end graphical interface suits the delivery of the content, searchability of the content, archiving or deleting old data and the role of user feedback as a means to understand and meet users needs.

    I thought it was neat to read about the merging roles of librarians and technologists. It really is true that librarians can benefit from learning web technologies and applying it towards improving information management, and that technologists can benefit from learning about user research and information needs and applying it towards improving web sites and information retrieval systems. There is definitely a lot of useful and accurate information available on the Internet, but all users would benefit from more website and content designers applying the ideas from this article. One of the points I like is the need for web sites and information resources to make the decision to either archive or delete old data, rather than leaving outdated data all over the place.


    Jevec, T. (1997). Designing and managing information in the fast lane. First Monday. Retrieved January 31, 2003, from http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue2_8/jevec/index.html

    Getting a Kick Out of Learning with Technology

    Summary (Pruekpairojkul Eddie)
    Due to living in an information-saturated and mediated world, and, for each new generation, the methods, tools and conventions of communication and media seem to increase exponentially. These changes affect the way young people think, create and communicate. Certainly, all educators should prepare their students for a fundamentally different world than in the past, especially using Internet but is everybody ready to teach and reach their students. In fact, some of them feel frustrated learning with technology, which they never experienced. According to Mark David Milliron in Getting a kick of learning with technology, We may not be able to look on with nostalgia as our students engage their learning journeysbut we can walk with them a bit on the road and model the value of lifelong learning along the way.Ƭ

    Its become apparent that the information students learn in school today is likely to be obsolete before they even graduate. Today, teachers are expected to employ modern technologies to help students learn, often calling for a complete rethinking of traditional practices. We can make it fun! The educators can teach a few students and make them the experts, then have them teach the other students. Or we can get help from parents and the community. These people are a very valuable resource. Do you have any idea what kind of techniques the educators need to know to teach comfortably and enjoyably within this newly mediated world?

    Milliron, M.D. (2002, December 2003, January). Getting a Kick Out of Learning with Technology. Converge, 5(6), p. 50.

    Homeschooling made easy.

    Summary (Pruekpairojkul Eddie)
    With a broadband access in the U.S., and being concerned about the horrors of school violence and some parents lack of faith in the public school system, homeschooling is becoming popular in this country. Some states is actively bringing technology home to parents. From the network, students can access a digital video library with streaming media titles and indexed clips, an extensive database, interactive activity sheets and productivity tools. It will make kids have the tools they prefer to enrich the learning experience.

    However, kids need to be very careful on the Net, especially when theyre interacting via message boards or e-mail lists that are not specifically monitored and child-oriented. While children need a certain amount of privacy, they also need parental involvement and supervision in their daily lives. The same general parenting skills that apply to the real world also apply while online.

    Allardice, L.C. (2001). Homeschooling made easy. Link up, 18(6), 18-20.

    Electronic Commerce: The issues and challenges to creating trust and a positive image in consumer sales on the World Wide Web

    Summary (Shih-Yi Yuan)
    This article indicates the issues of technology, privacy, security, and trust in e-commerce which is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. As e-commerce grows increasingly year by year, privacy and security issues are a major concern for many. Privacy and security are not the same. Privacy in a transaction means personal information will not reveal to others; on the contrary, security is thought to be protected from assault or corruption. According to the Business Week/Harris poll mentioned in this article, the majority will concern privacy and security as an important factor when they use the Internet. To ensure privacy and security online, sophisticated encryption algorithms are used which include SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), P3 (Platform for Privacy Principles), SET (Secure Electronic Transaction), and Digital Certificates. As well as privacy and security, the same level of trust in the real world must be developed to flourish and reach the full potential of e-commerce. Merchants, consumers, and financial institutions all need to be confident of the identity with whom they conduct business.

    Im a fan of e-commerce because I love to shop online. Many companies provide online shop service to make customers convenient. For those who live far from the stores, Internet is a good way to get what they want. However, like this article mentioned, privacy and security are the most important concern. If a company cannot provide excellent security on the Internet, I wont buy their product from the Internet and neither do other customers. Therefore, to enhance good quality of e-commerce, merchants should improve security and privacy for customers.

    Ferraro, A., (2002), Electronic commerce: The issues and challenges to creating trust and a positive image in consumer sales on the World Wide Web. Retrieved on February 09, 2003 from http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue3_6/ferraro/index.html.

    Digital Multimedia & Distance Education: Can They Effectively Be Combined?

    Summary (Shih-Yi Yuan)
    The author is an instructor who uses a software package called LearnLinc that has combined online learning and videoconferencing. This article focuses on the examination after using the LearnLinc computer system. The software can be parted into four objects: digital multimedia lessons, application sharing, desktop videoconferencing, and communications features. For each part, the author explains its functions and also limitations. Desktop videoconferencing, for example, allows students to see and hear the instructor or any student who takes control of the system. However, there may be some visual jerkiness and the audio may not be in sync with the video because the signal is compressed. After examining the overall problems, the author thought the system would become more widely available if it can continue to upgrade its capabilities.

    Although I am not familiar with this software, long-distance and online education interests me. I took WebCT courses last semester, but I dont feel its better than traditional education. The class lacks participation and interaction. However, Im willing to adopt long-distance or online classes if there are some synchronous features to make students have more participation such as videoconferencing. Overall, this kind of new educational technology can be thought as advantage, especially for those who live far from the campus. This will let them have one more opportunity to pursue knowledge.

    Tiene, D., (2002). Digital Multimedia & Distance Education: Can They Effectively Be Combined? Retrieved on February 09, 2003 from EBSCOhost database.

    Despite Concerns, Online Elementary Schools Grow

    Summary (Tina Lo)
    According to Galley, Online schoolsa phenomenon typically seen in secondary and higher educationaare now filtering down to the nations youngest students. For example, a handful of 1st and 2nd graders have been attending an online school in Alaska for three years. Meanwhile, new cyber elementary schools have opened in Ohio the past year. However, the trend would not thrill the traditional elementary schools because bringing children together is one of their basic functions. Except flexibility, one of the reasons the online elementary schools are needed is that it gives the kids who have been diagnosed as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, like Kaleb mentioned in the article, to burn off some energy outside so that they could be more relaxed and focused when it is time to do their schoolwork. Like other online learning, it requires youngsters, according to Mr. Holmquist, to be self-motivated, supported in their home study environment, and have an interest in and access to technology. It is a debate that online elementary schools are appropriate. Some experts said, such setups simply are not appropriate for children at that stage of development...that explored the problems that overuse of technology pose to children, including such physical ailments as eye strain, back strain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and headaches. Another serious problem is a lack of socialization.


    Im surprised that the e-learning also affects the elementary education. It brings a great convenience to the families live far away from school; also, it increases the interaction between children and parents. For teachers, they need more originality to develop the materials for each student to obtain their learning goals.

    Galley, M. (2003). Despite Concerns, Online Elementary Schools Grow. [online]. Available: http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=16cyberchild.h22 . (February 11, 2003)

    Web-Based Learning: Much to Gain, And Many Barriers

    Summary (Tina Lo)
    According to Solomon and Schrum, learners have so much to gain that overcoming the barriers and continuing to forge a path for change should be an important objective for all educators. Therefore, they pointed out the negative forces working to impede technology- integration efforts, the blocks to progress, and a few simple steps needed to harness the World Wide Web for learning in the best ways possible.

    Choosing this article because I can understand how difficult it would be when there are some barriers for Web-Based Learning. Most Web-Based Learning requires a lot of reading; as an international student, it takes more time to read over all the materials so that can complete the quizzes on time. Ive taken one web-based course that the teacher implemented Audio files which were more understandable. So, its not only the teachers responsibilities, but also the schools, as a supporter, to integrate technology into education.

    Solomon, G., and Schrum, L. (2002). Web-Based Learning: Much to Gain, And Many Barriers [online]. Available: http://www.edweek.org/ew/newstory.cfm?
    slug=38solomon.h21. (February 11, 2003)

    anytime, anywhere

    Summary (yang tzu yi)
    This article points out the advantages of e-learning. The author also gave the readers some examples like using learning simulation from military and FBI. It also offers the introduction of online university like University of Phoenix, which offers e-learning program so that the students can earn their degrees through internet instead of sitting in the classroom. Moverover, the readers can get some information about how e-learning can effect the emotion. It shows that the learners can control their emotion while learning vie internet better than taking the classes in classroom, because you can be alone when you learning in the net , and nobody can effect you by making noise or something you hate. Finally, the article says that the major adventage of e-learning is you can do iyit anytime and anywhere as long as you have internet service, so that there will be no time limitation and pressure when you are learning, because you can learn in a arrangable time and you can learn in a good moon.

    What i think:
    I agree that people will learn better in a no pressure and no rush enviorment like internet learning. I like to learn something in the internet, couse i can download the taxt into my computer and I just need to connect with the internet. For me, e- learning can save my time because i hate to spend time in finding the parking space in campus, that just drives me crazy. I can learn in my own time and in any place, like coffa shope, and hotel rooms.

    ANYTIME, ANYWHERE , By: Powell, William, T+D, 15357740, Nov2001, Vol. 55, Issue 11. Retrieved on 10, February, 2003, from Academic Search Premier database.


    Summary (yang tzu yi)
    In this article, the authoe offers two easy tools to the people who have no skills in building a webpage. Those two tools are Microsofts ubiquitous FrontPage, and Dreamweaver. The author also introduce a new technology called Homestead Technologies, which can make it easier for small businesses whose employees have little or no technical expertise to create smart-looking Web sites. Compared with Dreamweaver, Macromedias professional Web authoring tool, or even Microsofts ubiquitous FrontPage, Contribute, the new software crated for unskilled users, is a very simple Web-page editor. It limits you to the bare necessities: creating or editing text and placing images, tables, or links on the page. Most Web pages are fragile--a small mistake in placing an image or adding text can cause the whole page to collapse into a jumble. Contribute protects you with the ability to undo multiple changes. More important, it ensures that all work is done on copies so that no damage can be done unless you deliberately upload a messed-up page to the Web server.

    What i think:
    After I read this article, i think that the market for the creating tools in web site building is huge. I believe that there is 90% people who know how to use the internet and computer; however. do they know how to create a web site? I dont think so. Sometimes you need to creat a webpage for your job or your assignment, so useing a easy tool to help you creat a webpage is so important.

    YOU, TOO, CAN BE A WEBMASTER , By: Wildstrom, Stephen H., Business Week, 00077135, 2/3/2003, Issue 3818. Reterived from 10, February, 2003, from Academic Search Premier database.

    A classroom of One

    Summary (Yiling)
    Internet courses are growing and are taking part of in-class education. At the same time, online education can help students to reduce the problems for attending in-class education. Without face-to-face instruction, online education users take the benefits for many ways. Also, students still have to take the responsibility by taking online courses. However, the technology and economics are another major factors in this topic.

    While taking CECS 5420 this course, I do learn more about the ideas of online education and have more thought of it. For one of my courses, I took one online course and succeed. That course contains the based concepts of marketing. It was easy to get the ideas. Of course, it did save me some situations for attending the class. I think I take the huge benefits of online education.

    A classroom of One, Gold, Sarah F.; Chenoweth, Emily; Zaleski, Jeff., Publishers Weekly, 12/23/2002, Vol. 249 Issue 51, p53, 2p

    Pros and Cons of Studying online

    Summary (Yiling)
    There are some points of pros and cons of studying online. The Pros are: various mediums for distance learning, fast learning, the future of classroom, studying at anytime and anywhere or during the trips, and meeting and communication via messages. The Cons are: fixed costs for oversea students, limitations of technology, and sever problems.

    To extend the online education, it is necessary to take concern of whole technology environment. Even there are so many benefits of online course; it will not work out without connection technology. Also, online course expense is another issue because the students might not spend expensive cost in online education. Maybe we have to have the idea of how to providing the good learning environments for all students. However, as my thought, online education will take huge part of now day education system.

    Pros and Cons of studying online NEW STRAITS TIMES-MANAGEMENT TIMES, 08/26/2002

    Helpmate: A Multimedia Web Teaching Framework

    Summary (Yu-Shu Chien)
    The purpose of this article is to introduce a web-based collaborative environment called Helpmateă. The main difference between Helpmate and other web-based educational software is that Helpmate provides a one-stop pageă with interactive tools. The basic design of Helpmate is dividing a web page into four frames, and each frame includes a communication tool. The strong interactive functions of Helpmate include E-mail/remote control software, Web publishing, Web cam, and chat room. About the remote control software, it is to execute a program, Veraseă, to allow the lecturer to take control of students machines, and then students can view and learn the lecturers working. This article also includes a brief introduction of other web-based educational packages, and the authors hope all universities can combine all different multimedia within their online teaching web sites to provide students a better online environment.

    My Reaction:
    On-line teaching is prevalent among most universities in the U.S., so there are a variety of web tools to facilitate this modern teaching/learning method. Before reading this article, I have never touched about the remote control software. I think this is a useful function used in distance learning because students can see how the lecturer troubleshoot problems like what they would see physically in a classroom and even more clearly. Moreover, the design of one-stop pageă is also helpful because students can use different applications synchronously. Anyway, the fundamental work of designing courseware is the creation of web pages, so web authoring is an important skill we need to learn and familiarize.

    Curran, K. and Devin, B., (2000, May). Helpmate: A Multimedia Web Teaching Framework. First Monday, 5, 5. Retrieved February 07, 2003, from http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue5_5/curran/index.html

    A Short Analysis of Verbal and Visual Elements in the English of World Web Web Pages

    Summary (Yu-Shu Chien)
    In this article, the author analyzes the two important elements, verbal and visual elements, in the web pages. The main purpose of a web page is always to communicate and attract peoples interest. Because the advancements in technology, especially computers and telecommunication, people now are more willing to explore the world of the Internet. Therefore, more and more companies, organizations, and individuals make use of the Internet to communicate with public. The main characteristics of web pages are frames and controls, pictures and animation, image maps, fonts, and hyperlinks. There are many examples and figures in this article to explain how the visual and verbal elements innovation and combination change the communication type in the Internet.

    My Reaction:
    This article is published in 1998; many innovations in creating web pages mentioned in this article have become routines now because technology is developing rapidly. Even though some information in this article is out-of-
    date, there are still some features of web pages that we need to be concerned about. The basic characteristics of web pages will never change, so the key point to create attractive web pages is to understand web pages features and then using new software tools to express them. Appealing and user-friendly web pages will bring great communication with the readers and help you achieve your purpose of creating the web pages.

    Cordone, P., (1998). A Short Analysis of Verbal and Visual Elements in the English of World Wide Web Pages. Retrieved February 07, 2003, from http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue3_11/cordone/index.html

    Stop! Is your HTML document valid?

    Summary (Yezhisai Rajendran)
    The article discusses why validation of a HTML document is necessary and about the various types of validations available. The browser usually accepts HTML documents with errors and tries to display them correctly by making educated guess of the content. Even though it works most of the time, it is a good authoring practice to validate the document before publishing. It also precludes the interpretation errors in different browsers and keeps the document valid in all browser versions. Various examples of HTML validators like W3C validation, HTML chek, Weblint, HTML Tidy, and Doctor HTML are explained in detail. Syntactic, Semantic and Stylistic errors are the focus of this article. Each validator has its advantages and disadvantages and also most of them do not debug all types of errors. So using the best possible combination of the validators will result in an optimum error free Web site. Offline syntax editing validators like Weblint are also available. Various reference sites regarding where to find the validations are given. Also screens of some validators along with the options they provide are given which gives the user a clear idea of what is available in each validator and makes comparing the features with other validators easier.


    Error in coding is a very common problem faced in any type of programming. Some errors are easily detected and debugged manually. But the ones that are not can affect the look and contents of web pages drastically. Using validators prevent such occurrences.
    Currently there are many Websites like netmechanic.com, relsoftware.com etc., that does validations and monitors your site for an annual fee. They check for broken links and update them automatically. Validation has advanced technically in the past 3 years after this article was written and more features like browser compatibility, graphics optimization, JavaScript and flash hyperlinks have emerged. Also validations for CSS and XHTML are offered in the recent versions.


    Topic: Stop! Is your HTML document valid?
    Source: irt.org
    Author: Pankaj Kamthan

    Hypertext, the Next Generation: A Review and Research agenda.

    Summary (Yezhisai Rajendran)
    This article explains the concept of hypertext when it originated. It was mainly to bring printed books to an electronic media. The idea was to make reading more interactive by guiding the readers to proceed according to their own interests rather than the authors and also to enable users to give their feedbacks and perspectives. But the advancement in hypertext theory is not exactly what it was formulated to be. Instead, the World Wide Web encompasses the idea by applying it for numerous commercial, educational and entertainment purposes. The author describes the strengths and weaknesses of the hypertext theory by analyzing the foundational issues, authorship and reading factors. Despite the drastic deviation of original principles, many publishers are now bringing online versions of their books along with the printed version. The author provides an outline for future work focusing on the STS (Science and Technology studies), permanence of both printed and electronic technologies and the materialistic and moral issues facing the progress of the theory of hypertext.

    Reading the article makes me realize the amount of effort and work put in by designers and developers to provide us with the infinite resources on the web that we just take for granted. In some instances they may have failed to achieve the goals that were originally set. They are constantly working towards innovative ideas to make browsing and searching more effortless and enjoyable. I agree with the author that both hypertext and printed versions should coexist and not compete, as there are pros and cons in both aspects. Hypertext is effective for some tasks like educational research, then again reading a novel is a much better experience when done with a book.

    Topic: Hypertext, the Next Generation: A Review and Research agenda.
    Source: firstmonday.dk
    Author: Alex Soojung- Kim Pang