Reference: Hruskocy, Carole, Cennamo, Katherine S., Ertmer, Peggy A., and Johnson, Tristan. "Creating a Community of Technology Users: Students Become Technology Experts for Teachers and Peers," Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 8:(15 pgs.), 2000.
Principle: A "bottom-up" approach to technology training in the elementary school setting. Training a key group of students to become computer experts in specific technologies, thus giving teachers and peers ready access to a technology help desk or support system.
Type of Design: The Solomon Four-Group Design (R O X O) A Post-test Only Design.
The effects of testing and the interactions of testing will be examined over the course of the school year. The control group being the students in training. The project was designed to create a collaborative community of learners. Three groups are used: six graduate students and their professor; the school community consisting of 10 teachers (2 teachers from each grade 1-5), their students, and the librarian. Elementary students are given specialized technology training each week to serve as technology experts in the classroom and support the integration of computers into the classroom for an entire school year. In the first semester, the graduate students and professor gave students hands-on training on specific learning stations each week in half-hour sessions. The learning stations introduced students to the Library Browser, ClarisWorks, CD ROM software, and XapShop cameras. Every week students had a "take-home" product completed from each learning station. Every two weeks the university team would meet with the teachers and librarian to discuss the technology activities. During the second semester, eight students were selected to receive intensive technical training to serve as computer experts in the classroom. Also, each class was assigned a project that allowed them to integrate and apply the skills they learned in the first semester. Teachers were invited to attend each weekly class sessions and given one after-school-training lesson on the computers.Factors Jeopardizing Internal Validity: History of the teachers: fear and confidence levels regarding technology. The teachers attitude toward their traditional teaching role. Teachers lack of involvement in the technology implementation efforts.
Factors Jeopardizing External Validity: Not enough computers to go around. Not enough "tech time" 30 minutes per desired hour long sessions. Need for more instructional personnel and more instructional software.
Adequacy of Statistical Procedures Used: Data collected through student/ teacher interviews, inventories, and technology surveys. A qualitative analysis of the responses was conducted, looking for general patterns and themes from the individuals. The university team and librarian prepared a reflective paper at end of year. Teacher and principal answered an open/ended set of questions.
Briefly Summarize Logic (Inductive and/or Deductive): The researches determined that
- Teachers more motivated to learn and use technology
- Teachers implemented technology more in class
- Elementary students more motivated to learn and use technology
- Students more comfortable with technology
- Students learned a new way of learning
- Learned the value of collaboration.
Design Improvement: Provide more computers during "tech time" and more instructional software. Sessions with elementary students needs to be longer. More teaching personnel and teacher involvement needed. Conduct an hour interaction with teachers each month to generate new ideas for help in transfer of technology skills in the classroom.
Extension of the Study: The students, librarian, and teachers provide the instruction of the learning stations for the next school year. University team arrange for teacher in-service days (workshops) to provide training and involvement from teachers. An additional after-school technology training program was started with a group of 24 students to receive extra training. This training continues with one hour sessions per week after school. Meetings held once a month with university team and school personnel to accomplish and achieve goals.