February 17, 2001
Reference: Clark, M. C. (2000). The effect of video-based interventions on self-care. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22 895-911
Principle: This study examines the effectiveness of video-based intervention training on caregivers for elderly patients
Type of Design: This is a quantitative study using a pretest and two posttests. Three groups are studied: a video-only session on self care for caregivers, a video/discussion session on self care for caregivers, and a control group trained on other material. The members of each group were randomly selected from a group of 97 caregivers. Each participant completed surveys prior to training, immediately after the training, and 6-8 weeks afterward. The surveys measured the Self-Care Behaviors being absorbed by the caregivers. While this structure does not match any experimental design exactly, it appears to be a variant of the Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design.
R O1 X1 O2 O3
R O4 X2 O5 O6
R O7 O8 O9
Factors Jeopardizing Internal Validity: Testing and instrumentation can be sources of error with this study. The surveys were self-reported, which introduces a problem with testing. Prior to the training, a caregiver may have had a more general concept of self-care. After the training, they would have a more concrete example, but the first test is still based on existing knowledge and may have been inflated/deflated depending on respondent bias. The instrumentation may have been a problem when one considers the change in the participants after 8 weeks of caregiving. There is no mention of the tenure of the caregivers, which may be a source of error if the person is new and is starting to become tired with unexpected duties with the elderly patient.
Factors Jeopardizing External Validity: Reactive effects of experimental arrangements seem to be the largest risk of error. The caregivers studies are working with elderly patients in the United States. The authors must be careful not to apply these results to caregivers working with different age or cultural groups.
Adequacy of Statistical Procedures Used: The authors used the ANOVA and means comparison tests to discover significant differences among the groups.
Brief Summary of Logic (Inductive/Deductive): The logic behind the study is that video-based training allows the caregiver to step out of their existing routine and identify with someone who has similar concerns as them. While there is not a clear answer as to why the discussion-video group did not have the long term positive effects of the video group, both programs showed improvement in caregiver self-care attitudes.
Design Improvement: The control group for this study does not seem sufficient. While this group was watching a program unrelated to self-care, it would be better to offer no training to the control group.
Extension of the Study: This study can be extended by applying the experimentation to other types of caregivers in relation to age and cultural group.