David Gustof

CECS 5610

February 11, 2001

Reference: Atkinson, Stephanie E. "Key Factors Influencing Pupil Motivation in Design and Technology," Journal of Technology Education, V. 10, #2 - Spring 1999.

Principle: The relationship that exist between pupil motivation and these internal and external factors: pupil performance in design and technology (D&T) project work, pupil skills associated with D&T project work, pupil personal goal orientation, pupil cognitive style, pupil creativity, teaching strategy, and teacher motivation.

Type of Design: Data for the study was collected throughout a GCSE design and technology course work project. A cognitive style questionnaire was given at the beginning of each academic year. A summative questionnaire, a goal orientation index, and a creativity test was given upon the completion of the project. The study examined the final year of a 4 year study of pupil performance in design and technology. A one sample chi-square test of variance, an unpaired comparison of averages using the t-tests, chi-square for independence and a Fisher's Exact Test for 2X2 tables. The design of the study would be X O.

Factors jeopardizing internal validity: One factor that would jeopardize the internal validity would be the History or lack thereof. The study was completed on the last year of the 4 year program. Maturation is also a factor in that the persons studied were at the end of the study and could have become quite bored with it. Also, the small size of the group studied hurts the internal validity.

Factors jeopardizing external validity: Multiple-treatment interference could effect external validity in that this study was conducted on the last year of a 4 year program of design and technology. The number of students (50) observed in the study could effect external validity.

Adequacy of statistical procedures used: The use of a four point scale to score the observation of the project work, observation sheets and the semi-structured informal interviews. A one sample chi-square test of variance, an unpaired comparison of averages using the t-tests, chi-square for independence and a Fisher's Exact Test for 2X2 tables.

Brief summarization of logic: The logic of the study is that motivation effects performance. How a student does on a project is by the persons motivation. The study determined that a large percentage of the students were unmotivated, (60%), 22% did not enjoy the activity. Deadlines and delivery method of strategies had a role in motivation and performance.

Design improvements: The study should have tracked the group from the year one to year four of the project instead of just the last year. A more valid comparison of factors affecting the groups motivation and performance then could have been tracked and studied. Data should have been gathered using a pre and post test along with the observation and interviews. This design is represented as O X O

X O

Extension of the study: The study could be conducted over the 4 year life of the project using different groups instead of just one. It could also be done with different groups from different regions of the country or different countries altogether.