Woodul, C., Vitale, M. & Scott, B. (1999-2000). Using a Cooperative Multimedia Learning Environment to Enhance Learning and Affective Self-Perceptions of At-Risk Students in Grade 8. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 28(3), 239-252.
Principle: This study attempts to investigate the effect of a multimedia constructivist learning approach for at-risk students.
Design: The sample for this research included an experimental group and two control groups. The groups were formed using a stratified random assignment from the student pool of 48 at-risk 8th graders. All groups received the same initial two weeks of instruction about the Bill of Rights followed by the experimental treatment-a one week multimedia learning project-or a control condition-a combination of lecture, review, and classroom projects. After one week the experimental group presented their projects, while the control group received a short review. After another week all groups were administered criterion tests. The experimental design that best fits this study is the Posttest-Only Control Group design.
R X O1
Factors Jeopardizing Internal Validity: The research did not indicate the instructors for the initial two weeks. Different instructors teaching the sections could make a difference in the presentation of the material. The research detailed the experimental group had between 90-135 minutes per day in the third week to work on the multimedia project. Whereas the amount of time allotted to the control group was not specified.
Factors Jeopardizing External Validity: The classification of an at-risk student can vary among school districts. This research was done at the secondary level. Students at the elementary level might not respond to the experiment as the secondary level students did.
Adequacy of Statistical Procedures Used: The measures of central tendency used in this experiment were the mean and standard deviation. The two statistical methods for comparison of measures of central tendency between the groups were the Wilks’ Lambda and the f test.
Logic: The researchers made both deductive and inductive conclusions from the research experiment.
Design Improvement: Ensuring the same instructor for all the classes would make the results more valid.
Extensions of the Study: The researchers could track the at-risk students and their exposure to multimedia constructive learning opportunities provided throughout their high school education.