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Shanghai was founded in 991 AD as a small fishing town, and remained essentially unchanged until 1842. However, after the Opium War with Britain, Shanghai was opened to foreign trade such as British, French and Americans and became one of the five treaty ports in China. The village was soon turned into a city carved up into autonomous concessions administered by the British, French and Americans independent of Chinese law. Each colonial presence brought with its own culture, architecture and society, thus creating a mixing of cultures that shaped Shanghai's openness to Western influence.